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Reasoned, objective and most importantly fair. a valuable addition to the existing canon of literature in this most fractious of subjects: fascinating, sometimes.
Table of contents

When the official report stated the Towers fell due to severe structural damage caused by the planes and resulting fires, conspiracy theorists or 'truthers' as they are otherwise known, argued the fires did not burn for long enough 56 minutes in the case of the South Tower to cause the catastrophic collapses. Early video footage and photos taken from the scene did not seem to show much evidence of plane wreckage.

Theorists maintain this was evidence that the Pentagon was not struck by Flight 77, but by a missile or unmanned drone instead. They also argue that the structural damage to the building was too minor to have been made by a commercial airliner and question why the plane piloted by an amateur was even allowed to crash into the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense.

2. The moon landing is fake because you can’t see the stars.

According to official reports, the passengers onboard Flight 93 attempted to take back the plane from the hijackers and the subsequent struggle caused the aircraft to crash into an open field in Pennsylvania. As with the Pentagon attack, theorists state that little plane wreckage was actually discovered in the field and the crash site itself was too small for an airliner that size, arguing instead that the plane was shot down by the military and so it disintegrated over a larger area.

The United States government knew about the attacks and stood the military down. A common belief amongst 'truthers' is that the North American Aerospace Defense Command NORAD deliberately ordered their fighter jets to stand down and allow the hijacked planes to reach their targets. On the other hand, if a divine plan exists say, a Judeo-Christian one [26] , one can usefully analyze its components as part of a fairly long-running conspiracy. Likewise, most conspiracy theories are vague on what to do about them.

Suppose that the Illuminati or the Trilateral Commission or the Lizardfolk are really pulling all the strings of history, how does this translate into a plan of action to effectively resist them? What would that do? For the conspiracy theorist, exposure seems to be enough; once enough people know about the conspiracy, things will just sort themselves out.

An unfortunate and sometimes callous tendency of a diehard conspiracy buff is to instantly claim that a tragedy, be it a shooting, bombing, suicide , or stubbing their toe in the morning, is in some way fabricated by or the fault of the government. This is often done as a form of confirmation bias , motivated primarily by the earnest fervor and outrage that typically dominates a conspiracy theorist's life.

Sometimes, such claims are also made cynically, either for political or financial profit. Even when the initial motivation was not for profit, social media platforms have been profiting from enabling the dissemination of conspiracy theories. An even more unfortunate corollary of this is that any attempts at alternative explanations or deviations from orthodoxy are easily smeared as "conspiracy theories", and an overwhelming sentiment thus obtains where tragedies such as mass shootings , bombings, or suicides are "sacred" or "forbidden", and any discussion, whether in good faith or not, is fundamentally disrespectful.

This line of reasoning is much more often used cynically by political figures to stifle discussion which could potentially reveal their incompetence, malfeasance, or general scumminess.

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Social systems do exhibit complex forms of order and integration which emerge from the non-intentional consequences of intentional action; these emergent orders can be mistaken for conspiracies by people who have no real concept of social structure and therefore believe that every aspect of society must be the product of someone's will. For an observer who naively believes that a free market really always is a level playing field, the formation of oligopolies seems like an anomaly, which the conspiracy theory explains.

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  • A variation on this is found when practices that are common in one context are not generally known to the wider public. For instance, the intelligence agencies of the US and USSR during the Cold War routinely shared information which was kept secret from the citizens of both countries. In business, certain levels of collusion among competitors, especially in oligopolistic markets, are fairly common. Such practices look conspiratorial to outsiders and may even be conspiratorial in a broad sense of the term but have little in common with the fantastic conspiracies postulated by crackpots.

    • Purported theories about what really happened on September 11 are apparently still up for debate.?
    • The Most Compelling 9/11 Conspiracy Theories | News One?
    • References!
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    • For instance, conspiracy theories postulating that examples of ancient monumental architecture the Egyptian or Mayan pyramids , Stonehenge , the Easter Island statues must have been the product of aliens or whatever, usually depend on a serious underestimation of the engineering skills and technological know-how of the actual human beings on the scene.

      Many powerful American individuals and institutions benefited from the attacks, including the Bush regime itself and its allies in the military-industrial complex. However, this is in no way an indication that the attacks were an American conspiracy; this is just how global geopolitics works: when something major and unexpected happens, one interest group or another will find a way to benefit from it. Overall, conspiracy theories tend to depend on the fallacious belief that everything that happens in society must have been intended to happen by some specific agent, when in actuality many important and also many everyday events are the unintended or unforeseen consequences of intentional action.

      One common theme in conspiracy theories is that if one conspiracy theory is real, then all the others have to be as well. This is not correct. There are, however, a group of conspiracy theorists who group all conspiracy theories into one big one. Every tragedy was caused to distract from the real problems. War was caused to further the plans or two Illuminati bloodlines wanted to duke it out , a world event was staged to distract us, and a celebrity death was designed to hide their whistleblowing along with every secret society being created to further their plans.

      Daniel Pipes , in an early essay "adapted from a study prepared for the CIA ", attempted to define which beliefs distinguish 'the conspiracy mentality' from 'more conventional patterns of thought'. He defined them as: appearances deceive; conspiracies drive history; nothing is haphazard; the enemy always gains power, fame, money , and sex.

      Evidence suggests that conspiracist-minded people tend to think that they are both "too special to be duped" and that they desire "uniqueness" provided by belief in conspiracy theories. Fighting pseudoscience isn't free. Jump to: navigation , search. Not to be confused with scientific theory. The Jacobins, the Bolsheviks and the Nazis all believed in vast conspiracies against them, as do radical Islamists today. It is never the flaws of human nature that stand in the way of Utopia.

      It is the workings of evil forces.

      Who believes in conspiracies? New research offers a theory

      They want to blame all the world's problems on some single enemy they can fight , instead of a complex network of interrelated forces beyond anyone's control. I find it comforting.

      It's how I know for sure that [we're not] covering up aliens in New Mexico. We're through the looking glass, here, people…. It demands a deep and abiding faith in things you cannot know. They don't undertake to prove that their view is true [so much as to] find flaws in what the other side is saying. They dehumanize victims. They manipulate the public. People like [James H.

      Social media companies that allow their platforms to be weaponized were put on notice today. We will continue to stand up for our rights to be free of your attempts to use our tragedy and our pain to line your pockets or gain internet "likes.

      5 Compelling 9/11 Conspiracy Theories | TV Shows | HISTORY

      It might be that Americans fear the institutions we built, governmental and societal, have grown too large, too out of their lane of ordained responsibility. We wonder: "Are analysts reading our text messages through the cloud? Are newsmen swilling martinis poolside with politicians, colluding over what they think the best course for the plebs might be? All of a sudden, the comfort has a terrifying tinge to it.

      Among other things, they provide a way to reduce mental distress by changing our perception of a problem without actually doing anything to solve the problem.

      Conspiracy Theories

      They're the mental equivalent of a pacifier. For those of you in the mood, RationalWiki has a fun article about Conspiracy theories. ISBN Then the conspiracy theories started. Now, the parents of Newtown are fighting back. Namespaces Page Talk. In the aftermath of the attacks, passports and identification were found as evidence. In-flight calls were made from cell phones in both hijacked airplanes.

      Theorists noticed that 4, Jewish employees took off from work on September 11, Some of the first people to record the attacks on camera were also Jewish. They were the only evidence into what happened inside the cockpits of the plane. Three of four black boxes were found and only one was in good enough condition to hear. The tape was not initially released, but was shared with families of the victims in Initially, Osama bin Laden denied any involvement with the attacks. Soon afterward, numerous tapes came out claiming he changed his mind and took full responsibility.

      Many skeptics believe that Bin Laden was targeted because of his stake in the stock market, as well as because of former President George W.